D set: The timbre is dark and mellow, sort of like a cross between a clarinet and an English horn. Volume is about 80 decibels. The chanter is stopped, so it plays rests and articulates like any other wind instrument, and it has a 2-octave (nearly) chromatic range from g-g”. Principal keys are all modes of D and A, G major/ mixolydian/ dorian, E dorian/ mixolydian/ aeolian.
F set :This is the traditional pitch and sound of the Northumbrian smallpipes—a bright, chirpy sound slightly louder than the D set. It has a 2-octave range from b-flat to b-flat”. Principal keys: All modes of F, C major and minor, B-flat major, all modes of G.